The Fulbright Program was established in 1946 under legislation introduced by late Senator J. William Fulbright of Arkansas and is sponsored by the United States Department of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA). More than 360,000 “Fulbrighters” have participated in the Program since its inception more than sixty years ago. The Fulbright Program awards approximately 8,000 grants annually. Currently, the Fulbright Program operates in over 160 countries worldwide.

The Gates Cambridge Scholarship program was established in October 2000 by a donation of $210 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to the University of Cambridge; this is the largest ever single donation to a UK university. Scholarships are awarded to outstanding applicants from countries outside the UK to pursue a full-time postgraduate degree in any subject available at the University of Cambridge.

The Barry Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence in Education Program was established by Congress in 1986 to honor Senator Barry Goldwater, who served his country for 56 years as a soldier and statesman, including 30 years of service in the U.S. Senate. The purpose of the Foundation is to provide a continuing source of highly qualified scientists, mathematicians, and engineers by awarding scholarships to college students who intend to pursue research careers in these fields.

Each year, NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries hosts several undergraduate Hollings scholars at sites across the National Marine Sanctuary System. Working with sanctuaries, these students – all rising seniors at their universities – gain practical educational training experience through NOAA related science, research, technology, policy, management and education activities. The scholarship program is designed to prepare students for careers as scientists, teachers and environmental educators, and to increase public environmental and ocean literacy.

The Jacob K. Javits Fellowships Program provides fellowships to students of superior academic ability— selected on the basis of demonstrated achievement, financial need, and exceptional promise—to undertake study at the doctoral and Master of Fine Arts level in selected fields of arts, humanities, and social sciences. Subject to the availability of funds, a fellow receives the Javits fellowship annually for up to the lesser of 48 months or the completion of their degree.

Ruth Lilly and Dorothy Sargent Rosenberg Poetry Fellowships are awarded to young poets in the U.S. through a national competition sponsored by the Poetry Foundation, publisher of Poetry magazine. Established in 1989 by the Indianapolis philanthropist Ruth Lilly, the fellowships are intended to encourage the further study and writing of poetry.

The Mitchell Scholarship Program, named to honor former US Senator George Mitchell's pivotal contribution to the Northern Ireland peace process, is designed to introduce and connect generations of future American leaders to the island of Ireland, while recognizing and fostering intellectual achievement, leadership, and a commitment to community and public service. Up to twelve Mitchell Scholars between the ages of 18 and 30 are chosen annually for one academic year of postgraduate study in any discipline offered by institutions of higher learning in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" The NSF is the funding source for approximately 24 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America’s colleges and universities.

The NCHC Portz Fund is named in honor of the late John and Edythe Portz. Dr. John Portz was the first director of the University Honors Program at the University of Maryland, College Park and one of the founders of the National Collegiate Honors Council, serving as one of its first presidents and editor of the National Honors Review. John and Edythe were actively involved in honors education for many years and often traveled the country to visit various honors programs. Both cared deeply about students, study abroad, student scholarship, and innovation within honors programs and colleges. In recognition of their many contributions to NCHC, a committee, the NCHC Portz Fund Committee, was named and the NCHC Portz Scholars program created in their honor. Portz Fund grants for innovations in honors programs and colleges are awarded twice a year. Three Portz Scholars are selected each year and are featured at the annual NCHC conference.

The Rhodes Scholarships were established after the death of Cecil Rhodes, who dreamed of improving the world through the diffusion of leaders motivated to serve their contemporaries, trained in the contemplative life of the mind, and broadened by their acquaintance with one another and by their exposure to cultures different from their own. Mr. Rhodes hoped that his plan of bringing able students from throughout the English-speaking world and beyond to study at Oxford University would aid in the promotion of international understanding and peace.

The Rotary Foundation has offered a variety of educational awards in order to promote friendly relations between peoples of different nations. The Rotary Foundation’s oldest and best-known program was the Ambassadorial Scholarship. Since 1947 more than 41,000 men and women from 100 nations have studied abroad under its auspices. The Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarship program ended in 2013.

The Templeton Enterprise Awards were given annually between 2006 and 2010 to the best books and articles published in the previous year on the culture of enterprise. The awards were designed to encourage young scholars (thirty-nine or younger at the time of publication) to explore and illuminate the process by which economics and culture are related throughout the world.

A better future relies on attracting to public service the commitment and sound judgment of bright, outstanding young leaders. This belief is what led President Truman, when approached by a bipartisan group of admirers near the end of his life, to encourage the creation of a living memorial devoted to this purpose rather than a bricks and mortar monument. Since 1975, the Truman Scholarship Foundation has fulfilled that mission: supporting the potential of terrific young people from across the United States committed to public service.

The Udall Foundation awards scholarships to college sophomores and juniors for leadership, public service, and commitment to issues related to American Indian nations or to the environment.

Until 2012, USA TODAY's annual All-USA College Academic Team awards honored students who not only excel academically but also extend their intellectual abilities beyond the classroom to benefit society.

The Hertz Foundation mission is to provide unique financial and fellowship support to the nation’s most remarkable Ph.D. students in the physical, biological and engineering sciences. Fellowships are free of most traditional restrictions. Hertz Fellows become innovators and leaders serving in ways that benefit us all. The Foundation has invested over $200M in Hertz Fellows since 1963 (present value) and supported over 1,100 Fellows.

The U.S. Department of State’s Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship Program enables students of limited financial means to study or intern abroad, providing them with skills critical to our national security and economic prosperity. The Institute of International Education has administered the program since its inception in 2001.

The Critical Language Scholarship Program is part of a U.S. government effort to expand dramatically the number of Americans studying and mastering critical foreign languages. Students of diverse disciplines and majors are encouraged to apply. Participants are expected to continue their language study beyond the scholarship period, and later apply their critical language skills in their future professional careers.

Source: Adapted from individual program descriptions from the organizations' websites, May, 2021.